by Jeffrey Miller, Kenneth Lisenbee and Allen Hibbard





José Carleton, "Paul Bowles al Vivo", Madrid: Indice,1949-1950

Harvey Breit, "Talk with Paul Bowles", the New York Times Book Review (March 9,1952): LVII:10

Ira Cohen, interview with Paul Bowles, (an unpublished interview from the Paul Bowles Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York; 1965)

Mike Steen, interview with Paul Bowles, A Look at Tennessee Williams (New York: Hawthorne Books, Inc.; 1969): 141-156
Daniel Halpern, "An Interview with Paul Bowles" [1970], (Hopewell, New Jersey: The Ecco Press, Too Far From Home: Selected Writings of Paul Bowles, 1992): 523-538. (Read this interview.)
Oliver Evans, "An Interview with Paul Bowles" (Orient, New York: Mediterranean Review, 1; Winter 1971): 3-15

Michael Rogers, "Conversation in Morocco", Rolling Stone magazine, 161 (May 23, 1974): 48-58


Daniel Halpern, "Interview with Paul Bowles", TriQuarterly, 33 (Spring 1975): 159-177

Stephen Davis, "Interview with Paul Bowles", New York: Stone Age (Spring 1979): 38-40, 59

Jeffrey Bailey, Interview with Paul Bowles. The Art of Fiction, LXVII, (No. 67), Issue 81, Fall 1981, pages 62-98 (Read this interview.)

John Spilker, "Paul Bowles Interviewed", oboe, 5, Night Horn Books (1982): 74-86

David Seidner, Paul Bowles Interview, BOMB Magazine, 4, (Fall 1982): 10-13 (Read this interview.)

Gena Dagel, A Nomad in New York: Paul Bowles 1933-48, (American Music, Vol. 7, No. 3, Autumn, 1989): 278-314
Karren LaLonde Alenier, Francine Geraci, and Ken Pottiger, "An Interview with Paul Bowles", Gargoyle, 24, (Spring 1984): 5-32; also published in Conversations with Paul Bowles by Gena Dagel Caponi (Jackson: Mississippi; University of Mississippi Press, 1986): 157-179
Gena Dagel Caponi, "Conversation with Paul Bowles", Conversations with Paul Bowles (Jackson: Mississippi; University of Mississippi Press, 1986): 193-200

Allen Hibbard, interview with Paul Bowles, 1988. Paul Bowles: A Study of the Short Fiction (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1993)

Catherine Warnow and Regina Weinreich, interview conducted in Tangier during filming of Paul Bowles: The Complete Outsider (November 1988)
Heidi A. Jaouad, "Paul Bowles à Tanger", Revue CELFAN, 7.3 (May 1989): 15-18

Gerardo Piña-Rosales, "En Tánger con Paul Bowles: Entrevista," Nuez: Revista de Arte y Literatura 2, (1990): 5-6, 8-9

Soledad Alameda, "Paul Bowles: Touched by Magic" (Madrid: El País, 15 February 1990): 26-29
Stephen Davis, "Mercury at 80", (Boston: The Boston Globe Magazine, 4 March 1990): 14-20, 24-25
Josep Massot, Paul Bowles: A Nomad Stranded in Tangier (Madrid: La Vanguardia magazine, April 15, 1990)
Bruce Duffie, a telephone conversation and interview with Paul Bowles, recorded in May 1992 (Read this interview.)

Gena Dagel Caponi, editor, Conversations with Paul Bowles (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993)

Claude Nathalie Thomas, Paul Bowles and Michael Wood, "How we met: Claude Nathalie Thomas and Paul Bowles" (London: The Independent, Sunday, March 21, 1993 (Read this.)

Simon Bischoff, editor, Paul Bowles Photographs: How can I send a picture into the desert? and "Conversations with Paul Bowles", an interview conducted during the period 1989-1991(Zürich, Berlin, New York: Scalo Publishers, 1993): 205-255


Vittorio Santoro, "Paul Bowles and Vittorio Santoro: A Conversation", Portraits, Nudes, Clouds: A Book of Photographs by Vittorio Santoro (Zürich: Memory/Cage Editions, 1993): 67-70


Abdelhak Elghandor, "Atavism and Civilization: An Interview with Paul Bowles", Ariel, 25 (April 1994): 7-30


Phillip Ramey, "'You Didn’t Want Even to Meet Prokofiev?'", Paul Bowles: Music (New York: Eos Music, 1995): 9-28, a 1995 interview with Paul Bowles on his and others' music.) (On this site retitled as: "I Never Liked to Raise My Voice"

Karim Bejjit, "An American in Tangier: Interview with Paul Bowles", conducted in June 1996. (Fès, Morocco: Moroccan Cultural Studies Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1999, pp. 115-119). Dr. Karim Bejjit is an Associate Professor in the Department of English, Faculty of Letters, Ben M’sik Campus, at Hassan II University in Casablanca, Morocco. (Read this interview.)

Florian Vetsch, "Desultory Correspondence: An Interview with Paul Bowles on Gertrude Stein", (MFS Modern Fiction Studies, Volume 42, Number 3, Fall 1996, pp. 627-645; Zürich, Switzerland: Memory/Cage Editions, 1997). (Read on this site a substantial excerpt.)

Frank J. Oteri and Ken Smith, interview for New Music Box, the online  magazine of the American Music Center in New York, conducted in Tangier on January 1, 1998, and published on December 1, 1999. (Read "Paul Bowles Meets With Ken Smith and Frank J. Oteri".)

Phillip Ramey, "Up Above the World: An Interview with Paul Bowles", conducted in November 1997. Los Angeles: LA Weekly (May 8-14, 1998): 32-33. (On this site, retitled as "A Talk With Paul Bowles").

Mario Campañas, "La herencia del Nómada", (Barcelona, España: Ajoblanco: Número 112, Noviembre 1998): 26-3
Stephen Morison, Jr., "A Distant Episode: In Tangier with Paul Bowles", an interview conducted on July 9, 1998 (New York: Poets & Writers magazine, volume 27, issue 4, AugustSeptember 1999)  Read this interview.
Daniel Young, filmed interviews with Paul Bowles in July 1998 (incorporated into a documentary film scheduled to be released in 2012)
Owsley Brown III, filmed interview and conversations with Paul Bowles in Tangier conducted from the summer of 1997 until November 1998, portions of which are included in the documentary film Night Waltz: the Music of Paul Bowles.
Bernard-Henri Lévy, "Paul Bowles: Tangiers, for Example", What Good are Intellectuals?: 44 Writers Share Their Thoughts (interview conducted in 1999; edited by Bernard-Henri Lévy; recorded by Gilles Hertzog). (New York: Algora Publishing, 2000): 5-29
Irene Herrmann, interview with Paul Bowles conducted in Tangier on June 6, 1999. Paul Bowles on Music, edited by Timothy Mangan and Irene Herrmann (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2003): 263-272

Kenneth Krayeske, interview with Paul Bowles, (Trans-High Corporation: High Times magazine, issue # 289, September 1999)

Francis Poole, "Paul Bowles: An Interview", conducted in Tangier in September 1999 (Georgia State University, Atlanta: Five Points: A Journal of Literature & Art, Winter 2000)
Raman Singh, "Una conversación con Paul Bowles" ("A Conversation with Paul Bowles"), Madrid, España and Brooklyn, New York: Terra Incognita, Issue No. 5, (2004/2005): 23-33 (Previously unpublished interview with Paul Bowles in Tangier conducted in August 1978.)
Cecil R. McLeod, Paul Bowles: A Checklist: 1929-1969 (Flint, Michigan: Apple Tree Press, 1970)
Jeffrey Miller, Paul Bowles: A Descriptive Bibliography (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press, 1986)



Gena Dagel Caponi, Paul Bowles (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998; Twayne's United States Authors Series; London: Prentice Hall International, 1998) (An interpretive biography and critical examination of the works of Paul Bowles)
Robert Briatte, Paul Bowles, 2117 Tanger Socco (Paris: Les Éditions Plon, 1989) (Paul Bowles biographie en français)
Christopher Sawyer-Lauçanno, An Invisible Spectator: A Biography of Paul Bowles (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989; New York: Grove Press / Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999)
Michelle Green, The Dream at the End of the World: Paul Bowles and the Literary Renegades in Tangier (New York: HarperCollins, 1991; London: Bloomsbury, 1992)

Gena Dagel Caponi, Paul Bowles: Romantic Savage (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994)

Mohamed Choukri, Paul Bowles: Le Reclus de Tanger (Paris: Quai Voltaire, 1996). Also contained in: In Tangier (London: Telegram Books, October 2008). Paul Bowles, el recluso de Tánger, traducción de Rajae Boumediane El Metni (Barcelona: Editorial Cabaret Voltaire, 2012)
Millicent Dillon, You Are Not I: A Portrait of Paul Bowles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
Virginia Spencer Carr, Paul Bowles: a Life, (New York: Scribner, 2004; London: Peter Owen, 2005; Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2009, paperback edition)
Jens Rosteck, Jane und Paul Bowles: Leben ohne anzuhalten, (München: Goldmann Verlag, September 2005) [In German]



(Alphabetical by author)


John W. Aldridge, After the Lost Generation: A Critical Study of the Writers of Two Wars. "Paul Bowles: The Cancelled Sky" (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951): Chapter XII

Karren Alenier, "Paul Bowles: a rebellious history" (Seattle, Washington: Scene4,  International Magazine of Arts and Media, January 2011). (Read this article.)

Ian Almond, "Experimenting with Islam: Nietzschean Reflections on Bowles's Araplaina", (The Johns Hopkins University Press: Philosophy and Literature, Volume 28, Number 2, October 2004): 309-323

M. Balzani and C. W. Bush, "Is he a Bedouin? Post-War American and French Responses to North Africa in the Work of Paul Bowles and Albert Camus", Dale Carter (editor). The End of the Ike Age, (Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1992): 104-123
Bouchra Benlemlih, "Inhabiting the Exotic: Paul Bowles and Morocco"―a thesis submitted to The University of Nottingham, England toward a Doctor of Philosophy degree in May 2009. (Read in its entirety. Adobe Reader required for PDF file format. Download the Adobe Reader program here).

Johannes Willem Bertens, The Fiction of Paul Bowles: The Soul Is the Weariest Part of the Body, (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1979)

Evan Brier, "Constructing the Postwar Art Novel: Paul Bowles, James Laughlin, and the Making of The Sheltering Sky" (Modern Language Association: PMLA Journal, January 2006, vol. 121, no. 1): 186–199

Victoria Brooks, "Dreaming in Tangier", Literary Trips: Following in the Footsteps of Fame, (Vancouver, British Columbia: GreatestEscapes.com Publishing, 2000): 3-19

William S. Burroughs, text and photo captions. "Photo-optical, Cartographical & Literary Footnotes to a Survey of the American Socio-Intellectual Enclave in the City of Tangier" (New York: Esquire: the Magazine for Men, September 1964, Volume LXII, No. 3, Whole No. 370). (Photography by Robert Freson)
Edward Butscher and Irving Malin, editors, Twentieth Century Literature: Paul Bowles Issue, (Hempstead, New York: Hofstra University, No. 3/4, (Autumn-Winter, 1986)

Edward Butscher. "Paul Bowles as Poet:  Excursions of a Minimal Anti-Self." Twentieth-Century Literature, Volume 32, 1986: 350-72


Amanda Cagle, "Language as an Isolating Factor in the Fiction of Paul Bowles", Publications of the Mississippi Philogical Association, (2001): 26-34

Juan Cruz, "Paul Bowles: Escritor y Compositor", "La soledad es preferible a todo" (Madrid: El Pais,19 noviembre 1999, Nº 1295)  (Read.)
Neil Campbell, "Dialogic Encounters and Hybrid Routes in the Fiction, Travel Writing, and Translations of Paul Bowles", Will Kaufman and Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson (editors), Transatlantic Studies (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2000)

Gena Dagel Caponi, Paul Bowles (New York: Twayne Publishers (Twayne's United States Authors Series); London: Prentice Hall International, 1998) (A critical examination of the works of Paul Bowles and interpretive biography)

Gena Dagel Caponi, "Paul Bowles: a Study in Contradictions", USA Today (magazine), Society for the Advancement of Education, March 1997
Ira Cohen, Minbad Sinbad, précédé d'une conversation avec Paul Bowles; traduction et adaptation par Philippe Franck (Bruxelles, Belgique: Didier Devillez Éditeur, 1998) The conversationinterview with Paul Bowles by Ira Cohen dates from 1964.
Jack Collins, "Approaching Paul Bowles", The Review of Contemporary Fiction, (Fall 1982) Volume 2, Number 3: 55-63
Ralph M. Coury, "The Twain Met: Paul Bowles's Western and Arab Critics", Public 16, Entangled Territories: Imagining the Orient, (1997); Writing Tangier, Series: Currents in Comparative Romance Languages and Literatures, Ralph M. Coury and Kevin R. Lacey, editors, Pieterlen, Switzerland: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2009 (Read this online.)
Robert Craft, "Pipe Dreams" (The New York Review of Books, November, 23, 1989: 6+)
Gena Dagel, "A Nomad in New York: Paul Bowles, 1933-48", American Music (Fall 1989): 278-314
Ibrahim Dawood, "Mohammed Mrabet's Fiction of Alienation", World Literature Today, Vol. 64, 1990
Stephen Davis, Jajouka Rolling Stone: A Fable of Gods and Heroes (New York: Random House, 1993)
Stacey D'Erasmo, "The Exiled Heart", New York: Out magazine, May 1999: 69-73, 118
Emilio Sanz de Soto, "Bowles... y España", Madrid, El Pais, 19 noviembre 1999, No. 1295)
Millicent Dillon, "Tracing Paul Bowles", Raritan, 17.3 (Winter 1998): 47-63
John Ditsky, "The Time of Friendship: The Short Fiction of Paul Bowles" (Twentieth-Century Literature, 34, Nos. 3-4, 1986: 373-387)

Brian T. Edwards, "What Happened in Tangier?", Introduction to Moroccan republication of Love With a Few Hairs (1967) by Mohammed Mrabet. (Fez, Morocco: Moroccan Cultural Studies Centre, i-xiv, 2004)

Brian T. Edwards, "Sheltering Screens: Paul Bowles and Foreign Relations", American Literary History, 17:2 (Summer 2005)

Brian T. Edwards, "On the Role of Intelligence in Globalization: Phases of Mrabet's Work",  Mrabet/Bowles: Literary and Cultural Encounters (Fez, Morocco: Moroccan Cultural Studies Centre, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah University, 2005)


Brian T. Edwards, "The Worlds of Paul Bowles", Tingis: A MoroccanAmerican Magazine of Ideas and Culture, Spring 2005.

Brian T. Edwards, Morocco Bound: Disorienting America's Maghreb, from Casablanca to the Marrakech Express (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2005)
Brian T. Edwards, "The Moroccan Paul Bowles" (Ann Arbor: Michigan Quarterly Review 50.2, Spring 2011): 191-209. Read the essay.
Ivana Edwards, "Capturing the Exotic Life of Paul Bowles" (New York: The New York Times, January 23, 1994). A review of the documentary film Paul Bowles: The Complete Outsider, produced and directed by Regina Weinreich and Catherine Warnow. (Read review online.)
Chester E. Eisinger, "Paul Bowles and the Passionate Pursuit of Disengagement", Fiction of the Forties (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1963)

Isabelle Emerson, Twentieth-Century Music for the Dance: A Bibliography (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996)

Stephen Emerson, "Endings and The Sheltering Sky", The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3 (1982)
David Espey, "Sound Effects and the Void in the Fiction of Paul Bowles", The Journal of American Culture and Literature, Gonul Ucele and Bilge Mutluay, editors. (15th Anniversary Special Issue), co-published by the Poetry/Rare Books Collection, SUNY Buffalo and Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (1997): 1-8
David Espey, "A Writer Writes—Remembering Paul Bowles" [Morocco 1962-64]. This article was written in 2000 and published in the online Web site of Peace Corps Writers in September 2002.
Oliver Evans, "Paul Bowles and The 'Natural' Man", Critique, 1, no. 3 (1959): 43-59
Iain Finlayson, Tangier: City of the Dream (London and New York: HarperCollins, 1992)
Leslie A. Fiedler, "Style and Anti-Style in the Short Story", Kenyon Review (Winter 1951): 155-172
Edward Field, "Tea at Paul Bowles's", Raritan, 12, no. 3 (Winter 1993): 92-111; "Tangier Diary: A Visit to Paul Bowles", also titled "From a Tangier Diary: Tea at Paul Bowles's", 1991; Wonderlands, Terrace Books, 2004

Edward Field, The Man Who Would Marry Susan Sontag: And Other Intimate Literary Portraits of the Bohemian Era (University of Wisconsin Press, 2005)


Anne Foltz, "Paul Bowles." Review of Contemporary Fiction, 20.2 (Normal, Illinois: Dalkey Archive Press, University of Illinois, Summer 2000): 81-120


Ellen G. Friedman, "Variations on Mystery-Thriller: Paul Bowles' Up Above the World", (Armchair Detective, 19, no. 3, Summer 1986: 279-284)

Peter Garland, "Paul Bowles and the Baptism of Solitude",  Americas: Essays on American Music and Culture, 1973-80 (Sante Fe, New Mexico: Soundings Press, 1982): 189-190
Dwight Garner, "Trusting in the Sheltering Sky, Even When It Scorched", (New York: The New York Times, Books Section, Sunday, August 30, 2009). Read this article online. Republished as "The Legacy of Paul Bowles’ ‘Sheltering Sky’ 60 Years On" (Jakarta, Indonesia: The Jakarta Globe, August 31, 2009)
Asad al-Ghalith, "Paul Bowles's Portrayal of Islam in His Moroccan Short Stories" (International Fiction Review, 19, no. 2, 1992: 103-108)
Asad al-Ghalith, "Overlooked Prominence: Two Short Stories of Paul Bowles", (College Language Association Journal, 39.2, December 1995: 208-18)

W. David Halloran, "Screen, Lattice and Veil: Paul Bowles and The Sheltering Sky in the Undergraduate Classroom". Albuquerque, New Mexico: Bowles Notes 2 (Spring 2004): 18-24. (Publication of The Jane and Paul Bowles Society)


Mitzi Berger Hamovitch, "Release from Torment: The Fragmented Double in Let It Come Down" (Twentieth-Century Literature, 32, nos. 3-4, Fall/Winter 1986: 440-450)

Jay S. Harrison, "Composer at Home Abroad" (New York Herald Tribune, May 17, 1953: IV:5)
Ihab Habib Hassan, "The Pilgrim as Prey: A Note on Paul Bowles" (The Western Review, 19, 1954: 23-36)

Ihab Hassan, "The Pilgrim as Prey: The World of Paul Bowles", (The Western Review, Fall 1954): 19, 1: 23-35


Ihab Habib Hassan, "Paul Bowles: The Imagination of Exile", Chapter Seven in Selves at Risk: Patterns of Risk in Contemporary American Letters; The Wisconsin Project on American Writers (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1990): 135-155


Ihab Hassan, "Paul Bowles: The Pilgrim as Prey", Rumors of Change: Essays of Five Decades (University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa and London: 1995)

Robert Hauptman, "Paul Bowles and the Perception of Evil" (The Review of Contemporary Fiction, Fall 1982, Volume 2, No. 3: 71-73)
Irene Herrmann and Timothy Mangan, editors, Paul Bowles on Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, September 2003)  [Includes the last interview with Paul Bowles; contains many music reviews and critiques written by Paul Bowles from 1935 to 1946, which appeared in the magazine Modern Music, and in the New York Herald Tribune when Bowles was a music critic for that newspaper.]
Allen Hibbard, "Expatriation and Narration in Two Works by Paul Bowles" (West Virginia Philological Papers, 32, 1986): 61-71)

Allen Hibbard, "Tender is the Night and The Sheltering Sky: The Meanings of Familiar and Exotic Foreign Settings", Abhath Al-Yarmouk (Literature and Linguistic Series), Yarmouk University Publications, Irbid, Jordan (1988), Volume 6, No. 1: 7-20


Allen Hibbard, Paul Bowles: A Study of the Short Fiction (New York: Twayne, 1993)

Allen Hibbard, Paul Bowles, Magic & Morocco (San Francisco: Cadmus Editions, 2004)
Bowles / Beats / Tangier, edited by Allen Hibbard and Barry Tharaud, Series: Conferences and Colloquia, No. 5, International Centre for Performance Studies, Khalid Amine, director, 2008. Published by Collaborative Media International, March 1, 2010)
Leo Hickey, "A Pragmastylistic Feature in Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky", Forum for Modern Language Studies, European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford, England, UK, Volume 35, Issue 1, January 1999: 34-41

Peggy Glanville-Hicks, "Paul Bowles: American Composer", Oxford University Press, Music and Letters, Volume XXVI, Number 2: 88-96 (Volume 26, Issue 2, April 1945: 88-96)

James Murdoch, Peggy Glanville-Hicks: A Transposed Life (Hillsdale, New York: Pendragon Press, 2002)
John Hopkins, Tangier Buzzless Flies, (New York: Atheneum Press, 1972)
John Hopkins, The Tangier Diaries, 1962-1979. Cover illustration by Ahmed Yacoubi; photography by Robert Freson, Tessa Codrington, Ira Cohen and Cherie Nutting (Paris: Les Éditions de La Table Ronde, 1995; San Francisco: Cadmus Editions, 1998)

Syrine C. Hout, "Grains of Utopia: The Desert as Literary Oasis in Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky and Wilfred Thesiger's Arabian Sands", Utopian Studies, Vol. 11, 2000

Cassidy Hughes, Paul Bowles & Bernardo Bertolucci: Under Two Sheltering Skies: the Novel and the Film (New York: Hyperion Books, 1989)
Heidi A. Jaouad, "Tanger dans l'imaginaire de Paul Bowles", Cahiers d'études maghrébines, 13 (2000): 21-7.
Denys Johnson-Davies, "Sheltered by night", (Cairo, Egypt: Al-Ahram Weekly, Issue No. 460. December 16-22, 1999). (Read online.)
Burton S. Kendle, "Paul Bowles: Overview" in Contemporary Novelists, 6th edition. Edited by Susan Windisch. Thomson Gale / St. James Press, 1996
Randy Kennedy, "Film of Paul Bowles Short Story Rediscovered", (New York: The New York Times, Arts section, Saturday, November 13, 2010, pages C1 and C5, print edition). (Read online.)  This article is about Sara Driver's 1980 film based on Bowles' short story "You Are Not I".
Conrad Knickerbocker, "The Destruction of Innocence", a review of Paul Bowles' novel Up Above the World (New York: The New York Times, March 12, 1966). (Read this review online.)

David Kuhne, "Paul Bowles: Lost and Found in North Africa: The Sheltering Sky, Let It Come Down, and The Spider's House". African Settings in Contemporary American Novels (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999)


R. Kevin Lacey and Francis Poole (editors), Mirrors on the Maghrib: Critical Reflections on Paul and Jane Bowles and Other American Writers in Morocco (Delmar, New York: Caravan Press, 1996)


R. Kevin Lacey, "Western Movie Images of Arab-African North Africa: The Sheltering Sky and the Question of Orientalism"

R. Kevin Lacey, "Paul and Jane Bowles, the Beats, and North Africa: Aesthetic Creativity through Cultural Alienation"
R. Kevin Lacey, "Days, Tangier Journal 1987-1989: The Text, The Context, and Closing the Circle on Paul Bowles’s Impressions of Tangier"

Ellen Lansky.  "Beloved Enemies: Two Serious Ladies, The Sheltering Sky, Jane and Paul Bowles, and Alcohol", Dionysos: The Literature and Addiction TriQuarterly, 7.2 (Summer 1997): 5-1

Richard Lehan, "Existentialism in Recent American Fiction: The Demonic Quest", Texas Studies in Literature and Language (Summer 1959): 181-202

Bennett Lerner, "Paul Bowles:  Lost and Found", Perspectives on Music: Essays on Collections at the Humanities Research Center, edited by Dave Oliphant and Thomas Zigal (Austin, Texas: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, 1985): 149-155

Wendy Lesser, "Paul Bowles' Collected Stories", Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3 (1982): 50-52

John Maier, "Morocco in the Fiction of Paul Bowles", The Atlantic Connection: 200 Years of Moroccan-American Relations, 1786-1986, edited by Jerome B. Bookin-Weiner and Mohammed El Mansour (Rabat, Morocco: Edino, 1990): 245-258


John Maier, "Two Moroccan Storytellers in Paul Bowles's Five Eyes: Larbi Layachi and Ahmed Yacoubi", Postmodern Culture: An Electronic Journal of Interdisciplinary Criticism, 1, no. 3 (1991): 19

John Maier, Desert Songs: Western Images of Morocco and Moroccan Images of the West, (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, July 1996)
Irving Malin, "Drastic Points", The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3 (1982): 30-32

Irving Malin, "The Time of Friendship, by Paul Bowles", Studies in Short Fiction, 4, no. 3 (1968): 311-313

Jody McAuliffe, "The Church of the Desert: Reflections on The Sheltering Sky", South Atlantic Quarterly, 91, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 419-426
Jay McInerney, "Paul Bowles in Exile" (New York, Vanity Fair , 48:9, September 1985): 69-76, 131
Paul Metcalf, "A Journey in Search of Bowles", The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3 (1982): 32-41

Jean-Louis Miège, Georges Bousquet, Jacques Denarnaud, Tanger: porte entre deux mondes (Paris: Art,  Création, Réalisation, 1992)  

Margot Molina, "Bowles: mito y residente en Tánger: La ciudad celebra el centenario del bohemio autor de 'El cielo protector'" (Madrid: El Pais, October 30, 2010)
Marilyn Moss, "The Child in Text: Autobiography, Fiction, and the Aesthetics of Deception in Without Stopping", Twentieth-Century Literature, 32, nos. 3-4 (Fall/Winter 1986): 314-333
Eric Mottram, "Paul Bowles: Staticity and Terror", Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3 (1982): 6-30
Greg Mullins, Colonial Affairs: Bowles, Burroughs, and Chester Write Tangier (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002)
Nejma: Revue littéraire, Les Heures d'un écrivain, Paul Bowles (1910–1999); Simon-Pierre Hamelin, éditeur; Numéro spécial. (Tanger, Maroc: LDC éditions, Octobre 2010)
New York Times, author unattributed, "Paul Bowles Lives On in His Words and Music" (Reviews and News section, November 1, 2000, page E5) (A partial version of the original four-column article which contained two photos may be read online here.)
Dorothy Nyren, "Paul Bowles", A Library of Literary Criticism: Modern American Literature (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960)
Joyce Carol Oates, "Before God Was Love", The Profane Art (New York: Dutton, 1983): 128-131

Steven E. Olson, "Alien Terrain: Paul Bowles's Filial Landscapes", Twentieth-Century Literature, 34, nos. 3-4 (1986): 334-349

Christopher Francis Patten, "Chronicle of terrorism foretold", (London: Financial Times, April 28, 2006) (Lord Patten of Barnes is the Chancellor of Oxford University and he was the last Governor of Hong Kong.)

Richard F. Patteson, "The External World of Paul Bowles", Perspectives on Contemporary Literature: Rage and Order (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky), 10 (1984): 16-22


Richard F. Patteson, "Tangier Days: Talking with Paul Bowles, 1984–1988" An interview in Tangier begun in 1984 and finished in 1988. Read online in Web Conjunctions.

Richard F. Patteson, A World Outside: The Fiction of Paul Bowles (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987)

Richard F. Patteson, "Paul Bowles: Two Unfinished Projects", Library Chronicle of the University of Texas at Austin, new series, 30 (1985): 57-65


Richard F. Patteson, "Paul Bowles/Mohammed Mrabet: Translation, Transformation, and Transcultural Discourse", Journal of Narrative Technique, 22, no. 3 (Fall 1992): 180-190


Michael Pinker. "'Everyone Exists in Order to Be Entertaining': The Fiction of Paul Bowles", Denver Quarterly, 29.2 (Fall 1994): 156-93


Wayne Pounds, "Paul Bowles and The Delicate Prey: The Psychology of Predation", Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire, 59, no. 3 (1981): 620-633

Wayne Pounds, "Let It Come Down and Inner Geography", Review of Contemporary Fiction 2, No. 3 (1982): 42-50
Wayne Pounds, Paul Bowles: The Inner Geography (New York: Peter Lang, 1985)
Wayne Pounds, "The Subject of Paul Bowles", Twentieth-Century Literature, (Hempstead, New York: Hofstra University, Volume 32, No 3/4 (Autumn-Winter, 1986): 301-313
Wayne Pounds, "Paul Bowles and Edgar Allen Poe: The Disintegration of the Personality". Twentieth-Century Literature: Paul Bowles Issue (Hempstead, New York: Hofstra University, Volume 32, 1986): 424-39
Orville Prescott, "The Young Decadents: Capote, Bowles, Buechner, Goyen, Williams, Yorke", In My Opinion: An Inquiry into the Contemporary Novel (Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952): Chapter 7: 110-121
Lee Prosser, Isherwood, Bowles, Vedanta, Wicca, and Me (Lincoln, Nebraska: Writers Club Press, 2001; iUniverse, 2001)
Gary Pulsifer, editor, Paul Bowles by His Friends (London: Peter Owen, 1992)
Catherine Rainwater, "'Sinister Overtones', 'Terrible Phrases': Poe's Influence on the Writings of Paul Bowles", Essays in Literature, 2 (Fall 1984): 253-266

Phillip Ramey, "Paul Bowles: A Memoir" (inserted pamphlet in Paul Bowles: Music, New York: Eos Music, Inc., 1995)


Phillip Ramey, "Paul Bowles: A Time of Friendship" in Passport to Arabia [collection of selected works by or about Naguib Mahfouz, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 and who is widely considered the most outstanding novelist in the Arab world; Nawal el-Saadawi, a female Arabic writer who has been widely published in the West; and Paul Bowles, expatriate writer and composer]. (Wisto, Huntington, Cambridgeshire, England: Passport, 1993): 163-173


Joyce Hamilton Rochat, "The Naturalistic-Existential Rapprochement in Albert Camus' L'étranger and Paul Bowles' Let It Come Down: A Comparative Study in Absurdism" (a dissertation, Michigan State University, 1971)


Carl Edmund Rollyson and Lisa Olson Paddock, Susan Sontag: The Making of an Icon (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000)

Ned Rorem, "Paul Bowles" in Setting the Tone: Essays and a Diary (New York: Limelight Editions, 1984): 355-357
Ned Rorem, "Ned Rorem on Music: Come Back Paul Bowles" (New Republic, April 22, 1972): 22

Mary Martin Rountree, "Paul Bowles: Translations from the Moghrebi", (Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University, Twentieth-Century Literature, 34, nos. 3-4, 1986: 388-401)

Richard Rumbold, "An Evening With Paul Bowles" (The London Magazine, Volume 7, No. 11, November 1960)
Ralph St. Louis, "The Affirming Silence: Paul Bowles's 'Pastor Dowe at Tacate'" (Studies in Short Fiction 24, no. 4, Fall 1987: 381-386)
Joan Schenkar, The Talented Miss Highsmith: The Secret Life and Serious Art of Patricia Highsmith (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2009). [Contains numerous references to Paul Bowles and Jane Bowles]
K. Robert Schwarz, "A Composer Long Ago, An American Far Away" (New York Times, September 17, 1995)
K. Robert Schwarz, "Bringing Bowles Back" (New York: Out, October 1995, p. 50)

Pamela S. Saur, "Paul Bowles: Escaping the Intellect". Albuquerque, New Mexico: Bowles Notes 2, (Spring 2004): 11-17

Jennie Skerl, "Salvation in Some Tawdry Place: American Writers in Tangier after World War II". Albuquerque, New Mexico: Bowles Notes 2 (Spring 2004): 5-10

Michael Spindler, "The Naturalism of Paul Bowles' The Sheltering Sky" (Durham University Journal, 87.2, July 1995: 357-63)


Lawrence D. Stewart, Paul Bowles: The Illumination of North Africa (Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1974)


Lawrence D. Stewart, "Paul Bowles and 'The Frozen Fields' of Vision" (The Review of Contemporary Fiction,2, no. 3, 1982: 64-71)

Sarah Streed, "Sitting in Paul Bowles' Chair" [Morocco 1984-86]. Published by Peace Corps Writers (formerly RPCW Writers & Readers newsletter), September 1993: page 6 (Read this article.)
Cecilia Fernández Suzór, "Bowles y Tánger" (Tangier: Los Años dorados: Paul y Jane Bowles en Tánger, Instituto Cervantes de Tánger, October 2010) Brochure produced for the Paul Bowles Centennial celebrations in Tangier.
Claudia Swann, ed., Paul Bowles: Music (New York: Eos Music, Inc., 1995)
Alfredo Taján, Director, Instituto Municipal del Libro, Ayuntamiento de Málaga, "Los Años dorados: Paul y Jane Bowles en Tánger" (Tangier: Los Años dorados: Paul y Jane Bowles en Tánger, Instituto Cervantes de Tánger, October 2010) Brochure produced for the Paul Bowles Centennial celebrations in Tangier.

Nirvana Tanoukhi, "Rewriting Political Commitment for an International Canon: Paul Bowles's For Bread Alone as Translation of Mohamed Choukri's Al-Khubz Al-Hafi" (Bloomington: Indiana University Press: Research in African Literatures, Volume 34, Number 2, Summer 2003): 127-144


Paul Theroux, The Pillars of Hercules: A Grand Tour of the Mediterranean (New York: G. F. Putnam's Sons, 1995): 498-509

Claude Nathalie Thomas, "On Translating Paul (and Jane and Mrabet)", Journal of Modern Literature, XXEII, 1 (Fall 1999): 35-43.  Foundation for Modern Literature, 2000
Sherill Tippins, February House (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005) (Book about Paul and Jane Bowles and other literary, artistic, and musical figures who lived in a unique boarding house at 7 Middagh Street, Brooklyn Heights, New York in 1941.)
Edoardo Tomaselli, "Paul Bowles a Tangeri" (Milano: Amadeus magazine, June 2010): 37–39

Lawdom Vaidon (David S. Woolman), Tangier: A Different Way (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1977)

Florian Vetsch, Tanger Trance, with photographs by Amsel and a preface by  Abdelwahab Meddeb (Bern, Switzerland: Benteli Verlags, December 2010)

Gore Vidal, "Paul Bowles, Author", introduction to the Collected Stories, 1939-1976 (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press, 1978, 1979, 1983, 1989, 1997)

Gore Vidal, Palimpsest:: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1995)
Gore Vidal, Point to Point Navigation: A Memoir (New York: Doubleday, 2006)
Linda W. Wagner, "Paul Bowles and the Characterization of Women" (Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1985: 15–24)
Mark Wallace, "Hurry Up Please: Time and Destruction in the Fiction of Paul Bowles and William Burroughs" (Gargoyle, 42, June 1999)

Timothy Weiss, "Paul Bowles as Orientalist: Toward a Nomad Discourse" (Journal of American Studies of Turkey, 7, 1998: 37-61)

Timothy Weiss, "Oriental Terrains in Their Heads Are Green and Their Hands Are Blue," in The Journal of African Travel-Writing, 6, (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Institute of African American Research, University of North Carolina; 1999: 40-52)
Timothy Weiss, Translating Orients: Between Ideology and Utopia (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), Chapter 2, 'Without Stopping': The Orient as Liminal Space in Paul Bowles", (2004): 43-78

Linda S. Wells, "Paul Bowles: 'Do Not Appropriate My Object'", The Review of Contemporary Fiction, 2, no. 3, (1982)

Louis Werner, "Nights with Fires and Drums: Paul Bowles and Morocco", Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 47, No. 4, July/August 1996 (Read this article online.)
Edmund White, "Paul Bowles: The Desert and Solitude", The New York Review of Books, July 14, 2011
Gisela  Williams, "A Fabled City of the Dissolute Gets a New Shine", The New York Times , December 21, 2008, Travel Section, p. 4. Republished as "Back on the map: Tangier is a crossroads of history and hedonism", International Herald Tribune, December 22, 2008. (Quotes Paul Bowles about the city.) Read this New York Times article online.
Marcellett G. Williams, "'Tea in the Sahara': The Function of Time in the Work of Paul Bowles", (Twentieth-Century Literature, 32, nos. 3-4, Fall/Winter 1986: 408-423)
Tennessee Williams, An Allegory of Man and His Sahara, review of The Sheltering Sky (The New York Times, December 4, 1949)
Tennessee Williams, "Tangier: The Speechless Summer", a poem dedicated to Jane and Paul Bowles. Antaeus No. 1 (Summer 1970), pp. 43-45. Also in Tennessee Williams' Memoirs, p. 187
Tennessee Williams, Memoirs, (Sewanee, Tennessee: The University of the South, 1972, 1975; New York: Doubleday, 2005; New Directions, 2006)  [Many references to Jane and Paul Bowles]
Tennessee Williams, Notebooks, edited by Margaret Bradham Thornton (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007) [Contains numerous references to Paul Bowles]
Andrew Wilson, Beautiful Shadow: A Life of Patricia Highsmith (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003)  [Contains numerous references to Paul Bowles and Jane Bowles]

David S. Woolman (Lawdom Vaidon), Stars in the Firmament: Tangier Characters, 1660-1960 (Pueblo, Colorado: Passeggiata Press, 1998)

"Stories of Violence" (Newsweek International, August 4,1986: 48)
Paul Bowles: Catalogue of An Exhibition (Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Library, 2000)


(Alphabetical by author)

Simon Bischoff, editor, Paul Bowles Photographs: "How could I send a picture into the desert?", includes an interview, "Conversations with Paul Bowles" by Simon Bischoff, 1989-1991.  (Zürich, Berlin, New York: Scalo Publishers, 1994)
Karl Bissinger, The Luminous Years: Portraits at Mid-Century, edited by Catherine Johnson, with an introduction by Gore Vidal. Includes portraits of Paul and Jane Bowles and some of their friends and associates including Tennessee Williams, Gore Vidal, Truman Capote and Donald Windham. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2004)
Daniel Blaufuks, My Tangier, photographs by Daniel Blaufuks and text by Paul Bowles, (Lisboa, Portugal: Difusão Cultural, 1991)
Paul Bowles, Tanger, Vues choisies. Introduction, captions and texts by Paul Bowles; photographs by Jellel Gastelli; translation by Claude Nathalie Thomas. (Paris: Éditions Éric Koehler/Sand, 1991)
Tessa Codrington, Spirits of Tangier, in collaboration with and edited by Jean-Pascal Billaud, and a foreword by John Hopkins and another by Yto Barrada. (London: Arcadia Books, 2008)
Owen Logan, Al Maghrib: Photographs from Morocco, 1983-1988. Includes three stories by Paul Bowles: "The Little House", "The Empty Amulet" and "Things Gone and Things Still Here", (Edinburgh: Polygon; Glasgow: Third Eye Centre, 1989; New York: Columbia University Press, 1989)

Cherie Nutting and Paul Bowles, Yesterday's Perfume: An Intimate Memoir of Paul Bowles, a collaboration between Paul Bowles and Cherie Nutting, with numerous photographs and diary entries by Cherie Nutting, and essays and picture captions by Paul Bowles, and additional texts by Jeffrey Miller, Ned Rorem and Rodrigo Rey Rosa (New York: Clarkson Potter / Random House, 2000)

Vittorio Santoro and Paul Bowles, The Time of Friendship (Zürich: Memory/Cage Editions, 1995). With ten photographs by Vittorio Santoro, and a preface by Paul Bowles. 
Bruce Weber, A House Is Not a Home (New York: Bulfinch Press, 1996). Includes several portraits of Paul Bowles by the fashion photographer Bruce Weber, with a foreword by Paul Bowles.




Julio Ramis, Pintura, Colección Artistas Nuevos, VI; texto de Paúl Bowles (Madrid, España: Libreria Clan, 1952)

David Herbert, Second Son: An Autobiography, with foreword by Paul Bowles (London: Peter Owen, 1972)

William Betsch, The Hakima: A Tragedy in Fez, with an introduction by Paul Bowles and photographs and text by William Betsch (New York: Aperture Foundation, Inc., 1991)


Barry Brukoff, Morocco, photographs by Barry Brukoff, with texts and captions by Paul Bowles. Contains the Paul Bowles travel essay “Fez: Behind the Walls”, among others. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993)

Victoria Brooks, editor, Literary Trips: Following in the Footsteps of Fame, with a foreword by Paul Bowles, (Vancouver, British Columbia: GreatestEscapes.com Publishing, 2000)
Vittorio Santoro, Portraits, Nudes, Clouds: A Book of Photographs by Vittorio Santoro, with an essay, "The Sky", written by Paul Bowles (Zürich: Memory/Cage Editions, 1993)
Claudio Bravo: Paintings and Drawings, with an introduction by Paul Bowles (New York: Abbeville Press, 1997; Claudio Bravo: Y Dijubos, Spanish edition. Madrid: Lerner and Lerner, 1997)
Cherie Nutting, Yesterday’s Perfume: An Intimate Memoir of Paul Bowles, contains original texts, some of Paul Bowles' last writings and essays, and many photo captions by Paul Bowles (New York: Clarkson Potter / Random House, 2000)



Paul Bowles Reads "The Delicate Prey" and "A Distant Episode".  LP. (New Rochelle, New York: Spoken Arts, Inc., 1963)

Paul Bowles Reads A Hundred Camels in the Courtyard. Two LPs: recorded in Tangier, Morocco, 1978, (Santa Barbara, California: Cadmus Editions, 1981). Two CDs; unabridged: Cadmus Editions / Dom America audio book; Jon Carlson, producer; Jeffrey Miller, design (San Francisco: Cadmus Editions, 1999) The cover image of this Paul Bowles audio recording is a painting by Brion Gysin.

The Voices of Paul Bowles (New York: Tellus #23, 1989) Audio cassette magazine curated by Claudia Gould and Stephen Frailey. An audio archive (for noncommercial purposes) of several Paul Bowles' narrations has been made by UbuWeb Sound, with permission granted by the Estate of Paul Bowles. Listen to the entire album of "The Voices of Paul Bowles"  (Tellus #23) as Paul Bowles reads: "Allal", "Points in Time IV", "The Garden" and "Points in Time XI".

Black Star at the Point of Darkness.  CD. Produced by Randall Barnwell in 1990. Includes Bowles reading two poems "Here I am" and "Nights"; short stories: "The Successor"', "The Empty Amulet" An Inopportune Visit". Music includes Six Preludes for Piano performed by Jean-Luc Fafchamps and a solo performance of Qsbah by Zane, the leader of the Jilala musicians in Tangier, recorded in 1978. This CD also contains sounds from the Jemâa el Fna in Marrakech, Morocco and music recorded by Paul Bowles in 1960 in the Moroccan village of Amara in the High Atlas mountains. Brussels, Belgium: Sub Rosa, 1993)

Baptism Of Solitude.  Audio CD; recorded in Tangier in 1994 by Nicky Skoelitis and in 1995 by Bill Laswell. Includes Paul Bowles reading selections from Up Above the World, "Love Song", "Baptism of Solitude", "Each Whining Thing", Next to Nothing, "Points in Time", "Voyage en Egypte", "Delicate Prey", "Circular Valley", "Distant Episode", "Delicate Song", "You Are Not I", The Sheltering Sky and "Nights" (New York: Meta Records, 1995); latest release (Santa Barbara, California: Metastation, 2009)



The Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Butler Library, Columbia University, New York
Special Collections Department, The University of Delaware Library, Newark, Delaware
The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC), The University of Texas at Austin
The Archive of Folk Culture, The Paul Bowles Moroccan Music Collection, The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
The Alderman Library, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville
The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
The Swiss Foundation of Photography (Fotostiftung Schweiz), The Paul Bowles Photographic Archive, Winterthur, Switzerland
Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies (TALIM), Tangier, Morocco

For other online Paul Bowles collections and archives Web sites, see the top of the links page.


 Catalogue of Paul Bowles' Literary Works (Part One)


Recommended Web Resources and Links for Paul Bowles and Jane Bowles


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